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About Lead Refining

Lead recycled from used lead acid batteries or other sources (Secondary Smelting) via the Mini Blast Furnace or RotaryFurnace route, contains lot of contamination and undesired components. On the other hand, Lead required for batterymanufacturing is either soft Lead with 99.97% purity or hard Lead of varying Antimony compositions.
In order to make quality of lead suitable for its different uses, different variations of pot melting processes are employed.

These includes

Refining Pot Details
The Refining Pot (or Refining Kettle or Alloying Pot, as it is variously called), is a mechanical mixing device with a pot and aheating arrangement. The inner pot is made of heavy MS plate with dish end bottom. It is placed within a jacket of refractorybricks, which in turn, are protected by an outer cover of MS plate with reinforcements. The pot is covered at the top withopening for feeding lead ingots and is provided with an electro-mechanical mixer. At the bottom, a heating source, usually anoil fired/ Diesel burner& sometimes by Wood burning is provided to heat the pot and to melt the lead.Once lead melts, impurities are skimmed and removed and any consumables required are added. Lead is then drained fromthe pot through an outlet pipe and valve.

Capacity of such pots depends upon the requirements of particular units. Standard pot capacities made are from 3.0 Tons per Batch to20.0 Tons per Batch. Higher capacity pots are also manufactured as required by any particular establishment.

Melting pots are installed both with and without accessories which may include Ingot Casting Machine, Ball MakingMachine (where Ball Mills are installed down the line), Air Pollution Control Systems, Jib Cranes etc.

Production Process
Melting Processes have been grouped as
Re-Melting Process
This process is undertaken for value addition to the recycled lead from furnaces. Lead is melted in the pot and major impurities are skimmed from it to make it saleable in the market.
Refining Process
Lead is melted in the pot, additives such as Sulphur, Wooden Powder and Coke Breeze are added and mixed gently followedby dross removal. Thereafter, Tin is added to remove Copper and temperature is increased to 550-6000C. Further, additivessuch as Sodium Nitrate & Caustic Soda are added to remove Antimony. This process is repeated to get the desired purity oflead.
Alloying Process
Lead is melted in the pot; additives such as Sulphur, Wooden Powder & Coke Breeze are added and mixed gently followed bydross removal. Thereafter, Tin & Antimony are added to the liquid metal to get the desired grade of Lead.

Melting processes lead to generation of air pollution at the following stages

Hence, to meet various goals of maintaining employees' health, factory environments as well as regulatoryrequirements, it becomes imperative to get high end Air Pollution Control Systems to be installed with the Melting Pots.

Characteristics of Air Pollution generated in Melting Pot

Discharge Characteristics required as per Norms

Selection & Detailson Technology for Air Pollution Control
Based on the Parameters and the Standards mentioned, the following technology is adopted for Air Pollution Control Systemin Melting Pot is Pulse Jet based Bag House Filtration System
Aerodynamically designed suction hoods are provided to capture flue gases generated at source itself.
Ducts and bends are required to convey flue gases from point of suction to final top of the chimney and connect variousequipments like suction hood, bag house, ID fan and chimney. All bends and reducers are aerodynamically designed and haveprovision of manhole cleaning mechanism.
It is used for final filtration of flue gases to remove fine dust particulate matter using Pulse Jet Technology. Treated gases fromall the bags are collected at top of bag house and passed through ID Fan to exhaust the same to chimney. The dust is collectedat bottom of hopper and is discharged through Rotary Air Lock Valve.
ID Fan provides necessary driving force to convey flue gases from top of furnace to top of the chimney. The volume sucked overcomes the total resistance offered by equipment and duct with the help of fluid horse power provided by ID Fan driven bysuitable motor.
The generated gases are passed into atmosphere after treatment through chimney of suitable height and diameter.

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